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Universal and Colonial Exhibition 1900 and 1931

sand, camels, elephants and authentic Saharan tents in Paris ... no it is not the Zoological Park of Paris, but almost. On the occasion of astronomical exposures that such developments have taken place. The two most important ones were held in 1900 for the Universal Exhibition, and 1931 for the Colonial Exhibition.

World Expo is, with about 80,000 exhibitors and over 50 million visitors, the most spectacular of the two. It arises in control scientific advances of the time and this is the occasion that some city buildings are constructed, like the Paris Metro. It was also the time to take stock of colonization could be found native and camels in a very exotic setting.
But the most interesting for our work is indeed the Colonial Exhibition of 1931 which attracted over 8 million visitors. Opened on May 6, 1931 by the President of the Republic, Gaston Doumergue and organizer Marshal Lyautey's Colonial Exhibition and International Countries in Overseas Bois de Vincennes, east of Paris, was prolonged until 15 November, six months later. With a museum of colonization by a zoo, reconstructions of temples and thousands of booths, the exhibition celebrates the successful colonization. In effect at the time we rented the benefits of colonization: "Colonization is a phenomenon that is necessary because it is in the nature of things that people arrived at his level of evolution lean towards those its lower level to raise up to them. " by Paul Reynaud, Minister of Colonies, July 2, 1931 . However, for others it is that places of propaganda created to hide the truth about the decline of the French colonization.

A / A context that justifies these exhibitions:
Europe-loving peoples desire to civilize the so-called "inferior" by them, is found in the late nineteenth century to the head a large colonial empire that stretches all the southern hemisphere of the globe and North America. It was at the Universal Exhibition of 1900, these thoughts were pro-colonial exposed to millions of visitors as a pride, alongside the first steam engines or medical discoveries of the time. For larger colonial, like France or England, this exhibition was also an opportunity to justify all the dependencies in this direction: the thousands of soldiers and money sent to the front to win land, and that the people die in the metropolis. Many years later, after the First World War, an exhibition, this time dedicated to the colonies, but is organized for very different reasons. The colonies are shown of great utility for those who were colonized. In fact, during the War of 14-18, the colonial powers came into conflict with net benefits of the colonies, such as resources or especially an army supports provided by native soldiers. Or during the 1929 crisis, while non colonizers saw unemployment rise and the people "Rallies" increasingly, the colonizing countries relied on their colonies to get out of this mess. So in the context of praising the settlement that the originator of this idea, Marshal Lyautey, decides to make it happen, " Many thought that extending the French power in the world was dilute, weaken, making it less able to ward off ever-threatening danger. But in the tragic days, the colonies came to pla ¬ alongside some of the motherland and the unity of our Empire was the test of pain blood . "He says in his inaugural speech May 6, 1931. However faced with the refusal of many countries or the poor participation of some, like England and Germany, arguing that the crisis of 1929, this colonial exhibition supposed to be finished by universal becoming predominantly French. Becoming an opportunity to mark the apotheosis of the Third Republic and reaffirm the greatness of French colonizers, often look down on this area by others, as mentioned by Paul Reynaud, Minister of the Colonies, in his book The Golden Book of International Colonial Exhibition in Paris 1931: "In vain last hundred years, we found the tradition of winning success magnificent and uninterrupted: Algeria, Indochina, Tunisia, Madagascar, West Africa, Congo, Morocco . Still, the prejudice remained: the French, we repeat, is not colonial. It took the current exhibition and his amazing triumph to dispel the clouds. Today the colonial consciousness is on the rise . Despite this, anti-colonial ideas appeared from the beginning of the twentieth century, mainly supported by the Socialist Party and the CGTU (General Labour Congress Unit), making more and more followers. In response, the government must respond, and this is one of the objectives of the exhibition : justify the maintenance of the empire coloniale.Par cons, except for political reasons, these exposures are excellent places to cultivate the spirit all traveling far. And that's the first reason why the public moves.

B / A titanic organization: Yes they are both very successful, even more qu'estampé. However to achieve this result means titanic were established to offer compelling content.
exhibition of 1900 is the most impressive of the two with over 50 million visitors, a record for the time, content and standard of living means of transport. But also distributed over 76,000 exhibitors area 1.12 km ². This is the third world exhibition held in Paris, after the 1855 and 1889, and runs from April 15 to November 12, 1900. At the foot of the Eiffel Tower, it extends to the Champs Elysees Champs de Mars, covering the Esplanade des Invalides, the banks and that with more than 36 entries. She collected a large number of artistic monuments such as the monumental gate of the Place de la Concorde, representing the workers who participated in the project, or the Great Palace built by Deglane, Louvet and Thomas and for performances and the arts small Palace of Fine Arts built by Charles Girault. But what interests us most is the pits Colonial, which are very diverse. The view "Around the World" is the most expressive of the reproductions, including that of one of the temples of Angkor Wat (Cambodian temples), or with a flag showing Japanese Japanese architecture. There were also country pavilions. This exposure also contribute to the beautification of the French capital, including the construction of the first metro line in Paris, the Metropolitan, which could be taken to attend the Olympic Games held at the same time. This paper aims to 2,000,000 francs in investment by the French state, a considerable sum for the time.

International Colonial Exhibition and Overseas Countries is inaugurated on May 6 and ends Nov. 15, 1931 by Gaston Doumergue, President of the Republic in the Woods Vincennes, Porte Doree in Paris. It receives over 8 million and sold a total of 33 million tickets. One would hear through the many museums including the Musée Permanent des Colonies learning about the arts and cultures of French colonies and the Palais des Beaux-Arts. But also distract them with daily activities that are organized: as authentic native cavalry parades or reproduction of native ceremonies. There are also reproductions of African villages with indigenous Asian deported and a zoo where you could see exotic animals. All countries and colonies have its own flag, as the Algerian section or the flag of the United States.

C \\ The impact of exposure colonial
As the figures show, the two exhibitions have attracted a lot with $ 50 million to 8 million and one for the other. So they broadcast propaganda reached their recipients, most of which are directed to the colonies making them attractive tourist areas. Nevertheless, the Republican politics of the left to make the Maghreb in Algeria and especially a settlement failed in 1936 because only 14,000 French were distributed in the French colonial empire in North Africa from 15 million natives.

Before opening, the Surrealists were distributing leaflets entitled " Do not visit the Exposition Coloniale" in order to warn people about the dangers of colonialism : " speeches and executions , respond by demanding the immediate evacuation of settlements and the indictment of generals and officials responsible for massacres of Annam, Lebanon, Morocco and Central Africa. He reiterated that when a fire destroyed the pavilion of the Netherlands Indies June 27, handing out leaflets entitled " Initial results of the Exposition Coloniale ":" and will complete the work begun by the colonial massacre, continued with the conversions, forced labor and disease . The following year the answer is more virulent, with the inauguration September 19, 1931 Exhibition of the Counter . Organized in three sections, firstly it is a retrospective of colonization with emphasis on crimes committed, then in a second room she opposes the non-colonial ideas of the Soviet procolonialisme Republican, and finally it presents the cultural issues raised by colonialism. It was not the success hoped for, but clearly shows that France is split into two.

addition, policy issues that relate these two exhibitions, they pose as representatives of colonial thoughts and facts from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Youssef Aziz G


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