Tuesday, March 25, 2008

Gmac Lease Pull Ahead 2010

The Blackfoot called a

Who s 0 nt N-Feet 0 irs?

A "Blackfoot" is a "French in Algeria," repatriated to France from 1954. The appearance of this term dates from 1955, according Robert Paul, who was himself Blackfoot. The Blackfoot are French Christians and Jews. This term was already used in 1951-1952 to the barracks of the city to designate the recruits from French North Africa.

Before the war of independence the only designations to describe the French in Algeria were "Algerian" or "North Africans" about the natives, they were called "Arabs" or "Muslims ". The nickname "pieds noirs" seems to be reached in North Africa, after 1954, and he may be were made by soldiers from metropolitan number. However, its use did not really widespread in Algeria in the last years of French presence, especially in France, after repatriation.

The Blackfoot are a multitude of peoples and nations. They mostly come from Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, Naples, Corsica, Marseille, Barcelona and Almeria.

Thus the life of the Blackfoot has been tortured for half a century, but which are actually black feet?

We will state their lives through colonization, the period of war and finally decolonization.

I. Before 1954

The identity of the Blackfoot is treated at school. Indeed, the school of Jules Ferry implemented in Algeria played a key role in the formation of this company Blackfoot. European populations that are not necessarily become French through the school, which also transmits strong patriotic values, glorifies colonization idealizes and France. A specific culture, Mediterranean, colorful and unified by the French, and develops over decades. In addition, school children are taught geography, French and seasons in France.

In 1830, began the conquest of Algeria by France:

From 1830 to 1840, the settlement is free, even anarchic. July 5, 1830, the Dey of Algiers, capitulated to the French military intervention, decided by King Charles X after a complex history of claims owed by France. The decision to transform the military victory in the starting point of a phase of colonization was not immediate. The former regency of Algiers took in 1834, the "French possessions in North Africa", but no settlement was not committed before 1840, the date of the appointment of General Bugeaud as governor general of Algeria . From that date, the settlers are dismayed by what lies ahead, starting with the lack of housing and different gaps are felt later. The settlers live together in tents, eat in mess tins. The settlement is based on the creation of villages and free concession individual lots. The army opened roads, built villages, so she began clearing out heavily to settlement.
The conquest of Algeria has been accompanied by the colonization of the country. The idea is needed to make Algeria a settlement. It appears that this is the most effective way to consolidate the conquest. Bugeaud was appointed and he would vote for the idea of total conquest.
Algeria is composed of three French departments: Oran, Algiers and Constantine, the pieds noirs settled there, and there are about one million.

And it was in 1848 that colonization began stocking:

For the settlers, the revolution of 1848 gives hope to end the military regime. The 1848 Constitution proclaims Algeria an integral part of French territory. A policy of encouraging the establishment of settlers born. At the end of 1851, there were 33,000 rural settlers on 66000 131000 European including French. The civilian settlement is governed by the state.
On July 16, 1857, Algeria became French. And colonization progresses remarkably free. The almost complete abolition of customs barriers between Algeria and France in January 1851, the creation of the Bank of Algeria in August 1851 and a commodity exchange in April 1852 foster economic growth. It creates a road network and a network of railways.
From 1858, a Ministry of Algeria and the Colonies is in place. But the latter is removed in November 1860.
In 1860, Napoleon III was convinced that "the glory of France is based not on conquest but on love of humanity and progress" of Algeria. His empire collapsed in Algeria following many disasters in 1866 and its policy was abandoned in 1870.
Thus in 1871, Algeria is considered to France, she became a "little French Republic." Then in 1881, Algeria was part of France. This Algeria Republican practice a policy of official colonization and hopes to make a French rural population through free grant of land. The
Algeria obtained its independence through the action of Laferrière in 1898.


Colonization Free progresses: it was facilitated by the law of 1873 Warnier
Despite the official colonization and naturalization of Jews through the Cremieux decree, the number of foreigners is more important than the French.
The Act of June 26, 1889 imposes French citizenship to all the son of aliens who do not refuse: the automatic naturalization. This allows
naturalization total European population from 280 000 in 1872 to 578 000 in 1896. From 1896, the number of Europeans born in Algeria becomes more likely than recent immigrants.
We call these Europeans in North Africa "Blackfeet."

According to an excerpt of Albert Camus "I have passionately loved this land where I was born, I drew everything I am, and I never separated my friendship in any of the men who live there , of whatever race they are. Although I have known and shared the miseries that are not wanting, it remains for me the land of happiness, energy and creativity. "

II. From 1954 to 1962

This period is itself a period of fear that has marked much children. (They could be trapped by grenades when they went to school). So people were suspicious of each other and different events have created breaks between them. In addition, many children saw their father die shot in this war.

time of war, which began November 1, 1954 marks the beginning of the conflict. The guerrilla is both urban and rural as the FLN is determined to gain independence. Any reform is rejected by Europeans.
Thus, the army remains the sole authority, the committees defense of French Algeria, veterans call when a huge demonstration May 13, 1958. This event brings down the 4th Republic and General de Gaulle was recalled to power and that is when we observe a shift in policy led by France.

October 23, 1958, it offers "peace of the brave", refused by the FLN. Then, September 16, 1959, De Gaulle proposes self-determination and renewed its offer of a ceasefire in November. After that, events with "Barricades Week" in January 1960 in Algiers and Oran.
The birth of the OAS (Organisation Armée Secret) in March 1961 gave rise to attacks in Paris. The last months of the war were characterized by the attempted coup of General Challe, Jouhaud, Salan and Zeller's 22 to 26 April 1961.

When May 19, 1962, the ceasefire was declared, many did not believe it. In addition, during the signing of the Evian Accords, which would facilitate the maintenance of French in Algeria, the pieds noirs were not invited as they were most concerned.

On 29 March 1962, an event took place in Bab el-Oued that ended in massacre by machine guns. This has caused numerous deaths including many children.

In May 1962 signing of the Evian Accords ending the war and give independence to Algeria July 1, 1962.

Since then, the Blackfoot are desperate and so the exodus begins.

According to an excerpt of Albert Camus' man is not entirely guilty he has not started history, nor wholly innocent, since he continues. "

III.Après 1962

On July 5, 1962 took place the massacre in Oran, more precisely" the hunt for Europe. "The Blackfoot felt abandoned when they wanted to leave immediately because they had a choice between "the suitcase or the coffin" (leave or die). They are thus left, leaving many things, both material and sentimental because they had to put 150 years of life in a suitcase. The Blackfoot had the feeling to leave "their country" without knowing whether they could ever return. Thus, Algeria has cleared more than one million French.

Movement Europeans between France and Algeria during 1962.

Source: 1962: the arrival of Blackfoot - by Jean-Jacques Jordi - ed. Other 1995

Upon arrival in France, they are misunderstood, insulted by the French who have generalized the extremist movement of the OAS to all the Blackfeet, they take them to the killers. The French accuse everything from the rise in housing, rising food basket which makes integration difficult. It is difficult to find an apartment, a job and children were either not allowed at school or victims of other students.

They had therefore to face the invective, including the communist left, who caricatured as settlers profiteers. In the summer, the Blackfoot desperate and destitute, who arrived on boats overloaded, were received at the initiative of the CGT Dockers by hostile placards (" the Blackfoot to the sea ") at the port of Marseilles. Many saw their hardened containers into the sea by the same dock. Despite the prejudices qu'affichaient some politicians (like the Socialist mayor of Marseille, Gaston Defferre, who declared in July 1962: Marseille 150,000 people too, that the Blackfoot readjust go elsewhere. ") to against a population they do not really know, and cataloged on prejudice as consisting of settlers "the hooded sweat doing " to be racist, sexist and violent, and whose socio-professional structure should not facilitate integration into a modern economy. Yet the Blackfoot quickly adapted, these gloomy predictions were belied by the facts.

However, after the host received the Blackfoot became integrated quickly, contributing to the economic boom of the 1960s. Especially in the regions of Provence and Languedoc-Rouisslon. Previously sleepy towns have experienced a boost economic dynamism has contributed to their current (Nice, Montpellier and Marseille in particular). Black feet remain a unique community. Assimilated French in a France that no longer exists, then they had to fit in the old city hostile towards them. Many say they are exiles in a country that will never entirely theirs, but French nationality Algerian soil.

Lorqui, 1 July 1962, the Algerians decide by referendum for independence of their country, thousands of French pieds noirs settled in Algeria back to France:

exodus to find a home where sleep has separated many families.

Indeed, they feel pain and say that "the past is dead." The lack Algeria, it was happiness, sweetness, they loved their life there.

Thus, eventually the Blackfeet were able to integrate among the French. However, during the last forty years, they could not speak, so now they want to, "bring out the truth."

According to an excerpt from Albert Camus:

"Understanding the world for a man is to reduce it to humans."

"But what, after all, words fail or stumble, if they succeed, at least fleetingly brought back from exile in Algeria and we put it, with his wounds, an agenda which we have not finally Shame. "

Main sources: http://www.pieds-noirs.org ; Film: "Story of a wound" Gilles Perez in 2006; http://fr.wikipedia .org / wiki / Blackfoot

GEHIN S0phie
Giuriato Marjorie


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