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Orientalism and colonial influences in art and literature in

European colonization that began in the Middle Ages, has raised awareness to the Company of the nineteenth century of the existence of another world in various manners and customs which arouse the curiosity of the Western world. Several artists and authors of this period express this attraction through their works that capture the vision imagined that Europeans of the East, but also a concrete vision and real science missions that feed at the time. Thus Orientalism born . This current marks the importance of this time for crops in the Maghreb, Turkey and arabe.L art orientalist not match any particular style and features artists and works as different and opposite that Horace Vernet, Ingres, Delacroix, Fromentin, ... etc., until Renoir with his famous "Odalisque" of 1884 or even Matisse and Picasso in the early 20th century. So it's rather a broad theme that runs through the various artistic movements and literary works of that period and that takes aspects protéiormes inthe nineteenth and twentieth century. The attraction elsewhere, the search for the exotic, conquers society . Orientalism is who invented the myth of languor Eastern harems muffled, mysterious women and offered .... The harem is indeed one of the recurring themes of Orientalist works as well as desert and hunting fascinent.L Algerie, Algiers, and more particularly , which is a French colony since 1830, is a major destination for Orientalists. Theophile Gautier was a witness to the fervor woven around the city of Algiers: "The journey from Algiers to become painters also essential that the pilgrimage to Italy where they will learn the sun, study light, look for original types, mores and attitudes primitive and biblical "

PART 1: pictorial expression of Orientalism
French painters of the 19th century have largely contributed to the" Eastern Revival "of the painting, they are indeed the The origin of "visualization" of the East, before photography and film. Orientalism therefore seems, at first, as an inspiration to the iconographic themes and a variety. All artists who, at that time represented the East have not necessarily traveled in the Middle East . However, the majority of painters called orientalists began long expeditions in the Maghreb countries to report many sketchbooks. Algeria is one such country that has always fascinated artists who will then pour it: From 1907 the Casa de Velázquez Villa Medici in Algiers, the villa Adelta and Bou Saada

hosted artists from France until 1960. They are going to succeed for half a century and will number eighty-seven, sixty-seven painters and engravers, sculptors and seventeen one architecte.Al Djazaïr reveals to dozens of painters from around the world its magic light, space, his imagination, and bright colors.

A) Fascination with nature: Gustave Guillomet "Sahara"
1) The Dream Moreover, the exotic East: Orientalist Painters have continued to show their works in their fascination for the exotic landscapes oriental: They take effect in the theme of the Sahara which is striking for its vastness, its Tuaregs, camels and oases: Etienne Dinet Thus, captivated by the magnificence of southern Algeria, is undertaking 1905 a trip to Algeria, and settled in Bou-Saada, to live there permanently. With the help of his friend Slimane Ben Brahim Baâmar, he traveled the desert and became familiar with the tribes and nomadic Bedouin, discovering the traditions of Arab and Berber. All these factors will push to love and then to convert to Islam in 1913 by becoming Nasreddine Dinet. It then produces a number of scenes, sketches, portraits of a blaze of light and regularly participates in exhibitions devoted specifically to the Orientalism


2) Hunting: Another essential theme that inspired the Orientalists and very important in our context of colonization, hunting. This theme has inspired many painters as Delacroix's first pilgrim of the Maghreb ", which was one of the first painters who reported from Morocco pictures of riders and Arabian horses. The scenes were generally reproduced scenes of the daily life of native hunters as "hunting hawk, quarry "Eugene Fromentin or" the boar hunt "by Horace Vernet or tribal gatherings as" couscous under the big tree "or" Lunch at the Kabyle "any two of Benjamin Roubaud commented by Theophile Gautier "camp life he shared an amateur provided to Mr Roubaud grounds that it was perfectly arranged, without departing from the truth."

Fromentin "The hawking"

The theme of the hunt has shown, through the image, the lifestyle of hunters and tribes during the colonial era


B) The fascination for women: is in a warm muted colors and found that women are often the subject of obsessive oriental paintings. Sometimes, just add a few decorative items to complete the scene represented. Judicious use of exotic objects, costumes foreigners are methods for enhancing these women found in different contexts (harems and baths ...). Etienne Dinet reflects this fascination with femininity in these works conducted in the Sahara, where women are being in values of sublime landscapes and Desjeux

(Paintings of Etienne Dinet 'women' they are ignored and have no title)

1) The Harem fantasy: At that time, the depiction of nudity is offensive in Europe if it is not justified. However, the Harem is proving to be the expression of an otherwise unknown. Manners There are different practices tolerated (such as slavery, polygamy, public bath etc ....). This tolerance results in Europe a great fascination for the harem (or harem), where fantasies of the Sultan. Indeed, the Harem, so far from the morals and the European culture of the time raises many questions but also many fantasies: The harem dreams, fantasies, imagined are often inhabited by odalisques sensual curves in light clothing, and transparent. This theme is very popular in particular by Jean-Léon Gérôme Eugene Delacroix and Ingres. (Photos by Jean-Leon Gerome, The pool of the harem, and after bathing or Naked women) Take for example the Odalisque with Slave Ingres where a young nude odalisque stretches of shimmering fabrics, all entranced by the music played by his black slave at his side. Her sensuality seems to flourish in his music. The bent position that gives him the artist can showcase her breasts and beautiful forms. These forms indicate rolling with very geometric space. She throws his head back as if to afford more. The eunuch, castrated keeper of the harem and symbol of the negation of the male watches over the couple. La belle odalisque, curvaceous, is trapped in this place that opens right onto a courtyard. But the eunuch stands there just to avoid it or ensure that someone to interfere with the scene that occurs inside. Here, as in most works of Ingres, the woman is naked and captive in a confined space with the artist holds the key. The same is noticed in La Grande Odalisque. Presented back, The Great Odalisque is one of the few characters who look Orientalist works directly outside the scope of the canvas. ("L'Odalisque with Slave")

2) The bath : On the picture plane, the toilet scenes are often characterized by women who enter and leave the bathroom and, together with their servant, offer their naked beauty. You feel so in the privacy of those women who do not seem to care about the intrusion of the observer: To illustrate this point as preferred femininity, painters like Ingres show the rest, drowsiness, inaction This attracts the eye of the viewer, he is busy enjoying the scene, to revel in the sumptuous body of bathers. The curve of the body of the latter is repeated by different objects in the room, such as vases, plates, lamps, pots and circular in form. The light is dark hints at what the scene is set in a mysterious place and even intimate.

(Edouard Debat-Ponsan, Massage, 1883.

(Jean-Léon Gérôme Moorish Bath)

II: Orientalism: Literary Expression:
The conquest of Algeria by France in 1830, allows the development a strong intellectual interest in the East. This look allows the rich East to join the French literary field. Orientalism and donned a literary aspect: The "Young Writers" will then enjoy their travels in the East to feed their works of exotic smells, colors and intense sensation. It is within this context that Chateaubriand in 1811 made a trip East to "get images", he reports in his route from Paris to Jerusalem. Victor Hugo, who never went to the Orient, published in 1829 a collection of poems and lyrical fantasy entitled The Oriental. Lamartine, meanwhile, wrote in 1833 in a way his romantic memories, thoughts and landscapes during a trip to the Orient, where he called on Europe to "protect" the brilliant oriental civilization. In 1851, nearly ten years after his trip to Tunisia and Algeria, Gerard de Nerval publishes A Journey to the East, where the East is closely associated with femininity. The poetry of Charles Baudelaire in Les Fleurs du mal (1857) is also strongly influenced by the Orient, its smells, its flavors and couleurs.Cette fascination with the Orient in the literary field led some authors to s bind : Maupassant who also made several trips to Algeria around the 1880s, recounts his travels inspired him to a series of essays reflecting on his own fascination with the East but also to its commitment: In fact in the News Africa, Maupassant tells of his life experiences Algerienne where he does not hesitate to adopt a polemical tone in its criticism as anti-colonial in new Bou-Amama or Kabylia-candle. In Algiers, for example, a country that has suffered a settlement "far from being benign." In the second collection, Tales of Africa, the author draws on the political reality to give his opinion on military operations which he witnessed in Algeria as a reporter for the newspaper "Le Gaulois".

Thus, we grasp that the Orientalist movement is a complex movement to various aspects: it brings together both artists and writers fascinated by the Orient, in this case Algeria, from Delacroix to Maupassant through various other artists like Ingres, Gerard de Nerval and Victor Hugo.Cette diversity of backgrounds allows this movement to take different aspects: Indeed, while showing the beauty of landscapes, the sensuality of women and art to hunt through its pictorial expression, it testifies to the political commitment of major authors in its relations with litteraire.Ainsi he weaves between Algeria from the colonial and French artists, Orientalism reflects the common past of these two nations.

Yasmine - Inés - Adlane and Lamine
Bibliography: / Orientalism. .

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