Friday, March 7, 2008

What Colour Tie To Wear With Grey Shirt

Living in Algeria at the time of colonization

I) Organization of the government in Algeria :

A) Basic steps in the administration conducted in Algeria:
colonization between 1870 and 1900
From 1871 to 1881, we return to the colonial official who had been abandoned during the Second Empire, two prominent governors, Admiral and General Chanzy Gueydon, give it a boost.
New centers are created in three departments, and is populated with French from the mainland, either with the French in Algeria.
After 1881 and until 1902, the settlement is official brakes. The extension of colonization eventually absorb the land which the state provides. Also, after 1881, for lack of available land and credit to buy, it was necessary to reduce the creation of centers. Only after 1902, following the institution of the special budget, the official colonization resumed its momentum.
Since 1890, Algeria has its special budget, the need to strengthen the French element is obvious, we devote significant funds to the official colonization and developed the legislation that governs it. The decree of 1901, allows four modes of alienation of land settlement: a
The sale price fixed, open office, held the office of the chief areas of each department.
2 ° The auction by auction. 3 °
exceptionally selling OTC.
4 ° The concession fee, but only when the interests of colonization requires.
B) a social organization
The arrival of the French in Algeria led to a change in operation which begins with the training of teachers with the creation in 1865 of the ' Ecole Normale de Bouzaréah : mixed European and boys recruited natives. This number says that
Ferhat Abbas say: "These missionaries of the French School of Science and whose devotion to the native school was matched their determination to bring the Algerians to France"!

· Teachers PRIMARY:


year total% total% girls girls Grand Total Share of Muslims
Nursery Public 37277 1960 15549 48.2% 46.5% 52,826 Public Elementary

1960 129 699 48.4% 695,013 37.2% 824,712 84.2%


Opens in Algiers in 1859 a School Medicine and Pharmacy in local bass Kasbah.
Act of Jules Ferry in 1879 that creates 3 Graduate School of Law of Letters and Sciences.
The 4 high schools are grouped together in 1887 at the "Palais des Facultés" on the site of Camp Isly. A law in 1896
builds in Universities these high schools
The law of 30 December 1909 establishes as the 4 Universities Faculties:
social strata: settlers Jewish and Muslim natives
indigenous Jews are first subjected to the same rules as native Muslims, until they get 1871 or by naturalization "Cremieux decree" which grants citizenship to all French Jews to Algeria. This fact, this is hotly contested Algeria, where a violent anti-Jewish movement culminated at the very end of the century and in France. The
Senatufconfultum of July 14, 1865 attributed to the indigenous nationality but not French citizenship. However, this Senatufconfultum opened to Muslims to Jews as an individual accession process to the French citizenship, described incorrectly as "naturalization". The application requires the renunciation of Muslim personal status is a renunciation of Islam. In addition, the application could be refused.

C-Land Management and Agriculture
In 1830 an estimated 2.4 million ha of arable land area of 600 000ha in durum wheat, 600 barley and 000ha 000ha in 1200 grazed fallow. These figures are just necessary needs.
· The storage possibilities are weak destroying the good years
• The north African climate is temperamental with frequent meteorological disasters (rainfall often insufficient, irregular and ill-distributed late spring frosts - sirocco - drought and scalding end vegetation)
· Harvesting is done by hand with a sickle, to undermine or by uprooting native grain. The first

Senatus-consulte of 1865 recognized tribes the freehold land. The delimitation of the territories of the tribes, and fractions douars recognized and classified in several categories:
Melk or private property or collective ownership
communal douars and domanial

However, redevelopment of land
is a retrospective of the future bases of municipal life which led the investigation of General MacMahon dated 1 March 1865, specifies Moreover, the common-douar is nothing but the "seed of the common Arab."
--- A second innovation of this Senatufconfultum was specifically Arab country, the institution of the Djemaa existed previously in areas where Berber functioned as local assemblies.

II) The Settlers:
Small settlers

, Algeria and became a settlement has a strong land use. Attracted by the lure of free land or near, the peasants of France or elsewhere come, settle, conduct a miserable life and lasts for a few years, after which, having squandered their savings and often a lot of debt, their only resource to get rid of "their property", and take a trade or seek "employment." These "small settlers" and sell to the natives, the descendants of those who have long been expropriated.

Large capitalist farms :

But all lands that are abandoned by their original owner does not however go into the hands of the natives. Part is purchased, cheaply, by one or two settlers village, richer than others, and coming together to concentrate in their hands for quite large areas. The holders of these important areas do not generally operate themselves, they are content to be "owners", that is to say they donate them, by parcel, leased, or more often sharecropping, to natives who operate on their own at their own risk, by paying a fee to the European owner. The pride of these capitalist enterprises: the Algerian vineyard has been growing at a rapid pace. It covers in 1906, 221 000 hectares and its production in good years, over 13 million hectoliters. The Mediterranean climate, offering even the possibility of growing citrus fruits to be exported, mainly to France, is more abundant.

III) "Muslims in Algeria" in colonial times:

In Algeria, although the French territory has been declared with the administrative status of three departments: Algiers, Oran and Constantine, all the inhabitants do not enjoy rights of citizenship. The fullness of these rights was the privilege of a minority, Europeans and Jews, considered "French in Algeria," while the "natives" were excluded, except some of them, whose application naturalization was accepted that exceptionally elsewhere were rejected by their communities who called them m'tourni (the "returned" in Arabic).
code rights of citizenship that governed the lives of the natives was very uneven. The
France ruled Algeria; GOLD in France, there was never said that "ruled" a department. The review of the status of Algerians is instructive: the European of Algeria (French or from the European immigrations
) had the status of French, while the Algerian regime fell within the code of rights of citizenship .
In 1947 there was promulgated a new statute. One we could hope that it opened the way for a new Algeria, established the inequality of civil rights, since it instituted two electoral colleges, the first college (900,000 European) elected 60 representatives to the Assembly of Algeria, the second college (9 million indigenous people) also has 60 representatives elected at that meeting.
Certainly, from 1919, various laws had allowed some "native" to become, under certain conditions, French citizens, but it was always respecting a small minority. For almost all Algerians, there has never been equal status, since these, while having the French nationality, were distinguished from the rest of the population, the term "French Muslims "replacing that of" native ", but keeping the same meaning.
In fact, the inequality between Europeans and Algerians in Algeria was institutionalized with respect to taxes, criminal justice, military service, access the public service, remuneration in the public, in access to education.
The settler fears the native evolved, likely to compete. While all European children are educated, young Muslims are abandoned . In the cities, they wax boots and settle in slums. In the countryside, under-nutrition and infant mortality are rampant. No technical training, very few professional schools, no teaching of Arabic, not agricultural credit, no habitat, no sanitation, no hospitals.
wages of the native in 1910 ranged between 0.5 and 1.5 francs for a 14-hour day of work. From 1910 to 1920 he was 4 francs. From 1920 to 1935 it is 4 to 8 francs. From 1935 to 1942 it is 8 to 12 francs. In 1945 it is 250 to 360 francs.

We can not deny that the exploitation of natives who made the rich settlers. As stated
Ferrat Abbas in "the colonial night": "The Algerian, except for a handful of men closely associated with Europe, saw him give up the crumbs that colonialism"
The colon has two powers: he is French in Paris and is the first Algerian Algiers. While no Arab has no: he is away in Paris and legally a minor at Algiers.

But native did not subjugate themselves, they had begun to reclaim their land by buying up properties that the settlers abandoned. Moving from passive resistance to active resistance, the Algerian people resumed the struggle to assert his right against refoulement al'existence and cantonment.

The situation imposed on Algerians in the days of French colonization is as follows: to become a French citizen, was questioning his religious affiliation. This denial of citizenship (which is regarded by religion as a private matter), the establishment of a false model of the Republic, led to the rise of an independence movement, based on religious and communal the war Algeria with the outcome that we know.

Nour, Chanez, Sarah and Meriem


Post a Comment