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Algerian immigration in France

By its geographic location makes it a place of intersection of shops and people and its history as a former colonial power, France is a country of migration for many years. Precisely since the mid-nineteenth century France became a country of mass immigration. In 2007, following the election of the president, was founded the ministry of immigration and national identity, and today many questions persist about immigration. But what is an immigrant? in France, according to the definition of the High Council for Integration, a person born abroad and foreign entry in this capacity in France to settle in the French territory in a sustainable manner is an immigrant. Immigration therefore means the entrance into a country of strangers who come to stay and work there .... Algeria was long a French colony and only obtained its independence at the cost of a war. The term Franco-Algerian is often used to describe a French whose ancestors are originally from Algeria . And mostly from the twentieth century that many Algerian immigrants arrived in France. So we ask why and how has made the Algerian immigration in France?
We will thus present the different phases or periods, of Algerian immigration in France and the various reasons for this.

I) phases of Algerian immigration in France:
1) The first phase:
The first phase of Algerian immigration to France began in 1905, labor. Algerians working in oil mills and refineries of Marseille, as drivers or as stevedores on the vessels. Then hundreds of workers are employed in mines and factories of the North and Pas-de-Calais, industries Clermont-Ferrand and Paris. By 1912 it is called a true migratory movement from 4000 to 5000 Algerians.
In northern France is about 1500 Kabyle working in mines, for a regular wage and benefiting from the application of social legislation of the period for minors. They are generally well received by the working population. In the Paris region
, they work in construction and public works, chemical industries, sugar refineries Say , the company highways, railways and metro . They settled in towns and congregate in certain neighborhoods such as Montmartre .
The migratory movement accelerates from
1913 by eliminating the travel permit was then required for Algerians and one account, 1914, about 13,000 Algerians France.

2) The First World War: When
WWI , France relies heavily on workers and soldiers of the colonial empire . They will then be nearly 80 000 workers and 175 000 soldiers coming from Algeria. Those who are not on the front are employed in sectors vital to the war effort, arms production, engineering, aerospace, transportation, mining, etc.. Worker participation in the colonial war effort, is recognized and they enjoy the sympathy of the French. At that time, parties Muslims in France are celebrated with some pomp and there has been many mixed marriages.

3) Immigration installed Algeria (1920-1939): After
war, France repatriates 250 000 workers and soldiers of the colonies. From 1920
, immigration resumed, France, victorious but ruined by war, is partly destroyed. She again called on workers in colonies. Between 1919 and 1931 , we are witnessing a mass migration. If the component remains high among the Kabyle Algerian immigrants, others, like the inhabitants Northwestern Oran gaining ground. It was also during this period we created the first anti-imperialist movements in the Algerian immigrant community.

4) World War II: When
1943 , de Gaulle moved to Algeria, the Empire again provides soldiers and money for continuing the fight . The North Africans form the bulk of the African army, whose officers come from their city. This army is engaged in Tunisia In Italy then at the Battle of France. But de Gaulle refuses the Algerians to elect a Constituent Assembly.

5) Migration of workers: After
1945 , migration resumed, the Algerians are employed in areas that allow the reconstruction of France and the economic recovery, such as mining and steel but also industry and the construction of new infrastructure. From 1947 , the Franco-Algerian become Muslims and began to organize politically both in France and Algeria.
However, according to Daniel Lefeuvre, Professor at the University of Paris 8 Saint-Denis, who is one of the leading specialists in French Algeria, it appears that the Algerian immigration in France in the 50s originated the population explosion and poverty. Indeed, in his beloved Algeria, published in 2005, he claims that immigration does not meet the manpower needs of the French economy during the years of reconstruction or post-war boom but to the terrible situation in which Muslim populations living at the time. Resources are insufficient to feed a population that is growing very fast. poverty is spreading and the Algerians are forced to go abroad to feed their families. The colonial administrators encouraged such emigration to ease social pressure. But the city is unwilling to accept these new workers, who have no professional training, do not meet business demand.
6) The War of Independence (1954-1962): The Government
Guy Mollet in 1956 , gets special powers of parliament, said the reservists and sends the quota in Algeria. In 1958 , the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA) is formed, the National Liberation Front (FLN) took control of emigration. He launched a war against the French people enemy. The FLN launched the war in France in order to preclude any democratic solution to the Algerian conflict. De Gaulle seeks the dismantling of the FLN and its terrorist networks. Finally he negotiates with the only GPRA, the Evian agreements that put an end to the war in Algeria and endorse the free movement between Algeria France and the nationals of both countries.
Almost all Europeans and thousands of French-Muslims leave Algeria and took refuge in France. The colonial empire is shrinking, France turned to the Common Market
and industrialization, which requires still more arms, while emigration is the only resource. Algerian immigration explodes as and when sites open in France.
In 1962, the Evian agreements provide that the "Algerian nationals residing in France have the same rights as French nationals, except political rights. " The French authorities thought that this would facilitate the return home of Algerian workers after independence. Or, conversely, it caused a movement of migratory workers to France.
The status of Algerian nationals is now governed by an international agreement between France and Algeria signed December 27, 1968 and amended several times thereafter. The scheme, initially very privileged compared to others which are subject nationalities, has gradually moved closer to the general scheme. It is called the "certificate of residence "
· the certificate of residence of one year is issued to students, trainees or employees in fixed term contract.
· the certificate of residence of ten years for other workers, who must provide proof of lawful residence in France for at least three years of stable employment and adequate resources and stable. This certificate may also apply to other categories of persons, for example in the context of family reunification.

Today, some French of Algerian origin back in this country to create companies which helps to develop.

II) The reasons of Algerian immigration in France:

The wave of immigration in France was originally a predominantly European phenomenon. Until the thirties, Italian, Belgian and Polish were the majority of staffing of foreign labor. Then came the English, Portuguese and nationals of countries of Central Europe. In this set, the Algerians were in the minority.
Compared to the immigration of European origin, immigration Algeria has been delayed. One reason was that, until the war of 14-18, the Algerians were not allowed to move freely. These restrictions on freedom of movement, already in force in the Algerian territory, were the more stringent when it came to the "natives" coming to France in search of work. All travel was subject to the issuance by the colonial authorities of a "travel permit", a sort of ausweiss before the letter, and not always easy to obtain. This particular strain has delayed the migration movement Algeria. But as soon as the need for labor is felt, the administration releases the floodgates. Thus, in 1911, 5,000 Algerians had been granted special permission to come to work in mines in the North.
The obligation to permit travel was abolished by decree 15 July 1914, a month before the outbreak of war. The prospect of conflict, and its corollary that the general mobilization was an early glimpse into perspective that the workforce was running short. It was therefore necessary to urgently address the risk of economic collapse. Hence the relaxation procedures to facilitate the installation of Algerians in the French territory. Better still, the French were not afraid to take a decree in 1917 to requisition 17 500 Algerians as laborers. But this text has never been applied, recruitment volunteers with enough to meet the manpower needs of the economy of France
Algerians were discriminated against, often, they could not access that 'jobs in the hardest and least valued. Isolated from the French population, they suffered from racism. Their employers imposed a specific discipline. Under such conditions of existence, very few people permanently settled. A study in 1930 established that half of all Algerians remained in France for 10 months, others remained a year and a half, while only 25% were fixed permanently or only returned to Algeria until several years later.
The Administration's attitude towards immigration French Algerian was ambivalent. On one side there was the need for labor caused by the human losses and material destruction of the First World War. From this point of view, the necessity of commanding support the arrival in France of Algerian workers.
But on the other hand there were political considerations inherent in colonialism. In Algeria, the "natives" were considered "subjects" French, in contrast to other population groups (Europeans and Jews), they did not enjoy the status of "citizens". As a result, they were subject to specific rules whose application in France was problematic.
Given this inconsistency, the Board adopted policy to take a step forward, one step back. In 1914 came a decree repealing the requirement for Algerians to obtain a travel permit to make the slightest movement. In 1924, the Interior Minister has undertaken to reduce the migratory movement. Before boarding, the Algerians were required to produce a certificate of appointment, a medical certificate and identity card. In the colonial context, each of these documents was also difficult to obtain a visa today. Moreover, the recruitment of "indigenous" was subjected to a procedure done purpose to discourage employers. In addition, the Algerians were not allowed to come to France in their families, except on particularly draconian.
In June 1926, this regulation was repealed by the State Council which declared contrary to the freedom of individual "native".
Two months later, August 4, 1926 a decree (which was amended April 4, 1928) has replaced the circular. The retoilettage was perfunctory. The conditions for Algerian immigrants were even more draconian. Besides the above obligations, the applicant for Immigration is required before coming to France to deposit as security a sum of money he will recover at home.
Despite these constraints, the Algerian immigration has continued. She has endured and strengthened, and later expanded massively and permanently after the Second World War

Finally, Algerian immigrants, also called arrived in France for various reasons, mainly for work, in Mine for example, during WW1. Then this immigration took place over several periods in particular following the first and the second World War but also in the aftermath of the Revolutionary War. Algerian immigration is thus an important part of all the nations represented on French territory.

Work done by Clement, Clement and Florian


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